The Dictator’s Learning Curve: Inside the Global Battle for Democracy 獨裁者的進化與學習

Posted on 4/8/2014 5:57 am @ Taipei, Taiwan


source Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Dictators-Learning-Curve-Inside-Democracy

The Dictator’s Learning Curve: Inside the Global Battle for Democracy

The Dictator’s Learning Curve: Inside the Global Battle for Democracy

by William J. Dobson

In this riveting anatomy of authoritarianism, acclaimed journalist William Dobson takes us inside the battle between dictators and those who would challenge their rule. Recent history has seen an incredible moment in the war between dictators and democracy—with waves of protests sweeping Syria and Yemen, and despots falling in Egypt, Tunisia, and Libya. But the Arab Spring is only the latest front in a global battle between freedom and repression, a battle that, until recently, dictators have been winning hands-down. The problem is that today’s authoritarians are not like the frozen-in-time, ready-to-crack regimes of Burma and North Korea. They are ever-morphing, technologically savvy, and internationally connected, and have replaced more brutal forms of intimidation with subtle coercion.The Dictator’s Learning Curve explains this historic moment and provides crucial insight into the fight for democracy.

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Editorial Reviews

Review

Praise for William J. Dobson’s The Dictator’s Learning Curve:

“Intelligent and absorbing. . . . Mr. Dobson’s book, with luck, will find its way into the hands of people who aspire to be free.”
The New York Times

“An essential perspective on a crucial struggle. . . . Dobson is that rare thinker who combines a gift for storytelling with an understanding of how the world works.”
—Fareed Zakaria

“[Dobson] writes with exemplary clarity and a sharp eye for color. . . . Timely, authoritative, and as readable as a novel, this is one of the season’s most resonant books—not least because it ends on a note of guarded hope for the future.”
Prospect

“A brilliant and original analysis of the nature of modern authoritarianism.”
—Anne Applebaum, author of Iron Curtain, winner of the Pulitzer Prize

“[A] deft, incisive book. . . . The mix of perspectives results in an impressive overview of the global struggle between authoritarian power and determined advocates of political freedom.”
Publishers Weekly, starred review

“Dobson has invested time and insight, from China to Venezuela, and Egypt to Russia, trying to capture the shape-changing nature of modern authoritarianism, and the resourcefulness and wit of its opponents. . . . [He] captures empathetically the skill and insight of modern neo-despots – in much the way their more successful opponents do. . . . Rare is the book on dictatorship that can end on an uplifting note that its narrative carefully substantiates.”
Financial Times

“William J. Dobson’s exploration of the contest between contemporary dictatorships and those who rebel against them is valuable because it offers a sober analysis of both sides. Dobson traveled nearly 100,000 miles researching this book, which takes a close look at the face of modern authoritarianism. . . . His book may be about the struggle for freedom of other countries’ citizens, but there are lessons in it for the preservation of our own.”
The Washington Post

“[A] thoughtful journey through formidable dictatorships of our time. . . . Instead of offering caricatures of vintage dictators, Dobson observes the more dangerous trend—of dictators adopting the form of democratic governance, while draining it of any substance.”
The Independent

“Dobson’s is a terrific book to argue with. And it’s hard to think of a higher compliment for a book about Big Ideas.”
Christian Science Monitor

“Says something really fresh about the world we live in.”
—Michael Burleigh, The Telegraph’s Best Books of 2012

“After a remarkable year in which citizens of a dozen countries have challenged their authoritarian governments, readers will welcome veteran journalist Dobson’s overview of the complicated dance of adaptation by the world’s dictators and those who resist their oppressive power. . . . A timely, valuable contribution to readers’ understanding of global unrest.”
Booklist

“Colorful and sharply reported.”
Bloomberg BusinessWeek

“Fascinating . . . some of Dobson’s most astute observations come from his reporting about China. The Chinese communists, he concludes, are the least complacent of today’s modern authoritarians.”
Foreign Policy

“A vivid real-time portrait of the movement for democracy. Among its virtues, Dobson’s book clarifies the ways in which the recent challenge to dictatorship represents a coordinated worldwide effort, and the ways in which each country’s struggle is unique.”
—James Fallows, national correspondent for The Atlantic and author of China Airborne

“It is hard to imagine a timelier book than this one. William Dobson provides a new framework and a new vocabulary for understanding modern authoritarianism, backed up by detailed and gripping stories of dictators and their citizen opponents in Russia, China, Venezuela, Egypt, and Malaysia. Anyone seeking to make sense of the extraordinary tide of revolutions and protests sweeping around the world will find The Dictator’s Learning Curve an indispensable read.”
—Anne-Marie Slaughter, Bert G. Kerstetter ‘66 University Professor of Politics and International Affairs, Princeton University, and former Director of Policy Planning, U.S. State Department

“William J. Dobson vividly portrays [the] struggle against authoritarian rule …Dobson’s coverage of Venezuela’s internal political struggles is particularly fascinating. He had spectacular access to well-placed sources in this oil-rich country, including political prisoners.”
Wilson Quarterly

“Dobson’s book ends up not only a sophisticated but also a wonderfully readable account of the latest installments in an age-old type of struggle.”
Pacific Standard

“Dobson has interviewed scores of protesters, security experts, opposition political candidates, elite power brokers, and a former Egyptian police officer who, from his computer in the United States, guided protesters occupying Tahrir Square…As a result, the reader gets a wide-ranging overview of political strife as we live it now.”
The Weekly Standard

“Timely…Dobson chronicles in detail the ingenious but sinister ways in which modern authoritarian regimes are suppressing dissent.”
The Journal of Democracy

“A fluid study of how heavy-handed repression by authoritarian regimes has given way to more subtle forms of control. . . . A pertinent work of journalistic research that will gain fresh meaning as authoritarian regimes both evolve and fall.”
Kirkus Reviews

About the Author

William J. Dobson is politics and foreign affairs editor for Slate. He has been an editor at Foreign AffairsNewsweek International, and Foreign Policy. During his tenure at Foreign Policy, the magazine was nominated for the coveted National Magazine Award for General Excellence each year and won top honors in 2007 and 2009. His articles and essays have appeared in The New York TimesThe Washington Post, and The Wall Street Journal, and he has provided analysis for ABC, CNN, CBS, MSNBC, and NPR. He lives in Washington, DC.

Biography

William J. Dobson is the politics & foreign affairs editor for Slate. Previously, he served as the managing editor of Foreign Policy magazine. Under his editorial direction, the magazine was nominated for the National Magazine Award five years in a row–the only publication of its size to be nominated for five consecutive years–and in 2007 and 2009, Foreign Policy won the overall award for General Excellence. Earlier in his career, Mr. Dobson served as Newsweek International’s Senior Editor for Asia and as Associate Editor at Foreign Affairs.

During the height of the Arab Spring, the Washington Post editorial page commissioned Mr. Dobson to write daily online pieces on modern authoritarianism. While in Cairo, Mr. Dobson reported the first direct first-person account of the Egyptian military conducting torture of female protestors from Tahrir Square.

Mr. Dobson has published widely on international politics. His articles and op-eds have appeared in the New York Times, Washington Post, Financial Times, Wall Street Journal, Boston Globe, Foreign Policy, The New Republic, Newsweek, and elsewhere. He has provided commentary and analysis on international politics for ABC, CNN, CBS, MSNBC, and NPR.

From 2008 to 2009, Mr. Dobson was a Visiting Scholar at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. In 2006, Mr. Dobson was named a Young Global Leader by the World Economic Forum. He has been recognized and awarded honors by a number of international foundations, including the Salzburg Global Seminar, the East-West Center, the Knight Foundation, the Council for the United States and Italy, and the Singapore International Foundation. He has received fellowships from Harvard University, the University of Chicago, and Stanford University. Mr. Dobson is a 1994 Truman Scholar.

Mr. Dobson holds a law degree from Harvard Law School and a Masters degree in East Asian Studies from Harvard University. He received his bachelor’s degree, summa cum laude, from Middlebury College. He lives in Washington, DC.

Most Helpful Customer Reviews

24 of 31 people found the following review helpful

By Fastbreak on June 13, 2012

Format: Hardcover

Every once in a while — and by while I mean at least several years — a book comes along that stops you in your tracks. The Dictator’s Learning Curve is one of those books. Dobson’s well researched and proven thesis of how dictators manipulate the trappings of democracy to in fact become more autocratic is simply breathtaking. The way he demonstrates how Mubarak, Putin, Chavez and China’s repressive leaders all essentially mimic one another in their techinques is extraordinary. The stories of the opposition leaders in these countries, many of them youthful, are heroic. And the timing of this book could not be better with Putin’s return to the presidency, Egypt in transition, and Chavez’s bid for reelection. A book for both the foreign policy wonk and the reader who follows the news abroad but wants a deeper understanding of what’s really happening.

 

2 of 2 people found the following review helpful

By Walt VINE VOICE on February 25, 2013

Format: Hardcover

The Dictator’s Learning Curve provides an insightful view of the new face of tyranny. Many modern dictators have learned to preserve their power by more subtle means than concentration camps or massacres in the street. Seemingly reasonable bureaucratic requirements for the media or for receiving government assistance can be just as effective as more brutal means at stifling open dissent.
For example, Putin’s elections, free but structured so that the opposition cannot win, are just as effective as Stalin’s Gulag in keeping the regime in power, but are much less disruptive of Russian society. Dissident media offices are shut down, not by club-wielding thugs, but by having their computers confiscated because they contain unlicensed software.
Dobson’s provides many examples from Russia, China, Serbia, the Middle East, and Venezuela. He also illustrates the ways democracy advocates oppose these new tactics, such as the Egyptian riot policeman who clandestinely publishes a guide for protestors, showing how to stymy his colleagues’ tactics.
Dobson also provides a good introduction to the work of Gene Sharp, the American professor who has developed creative ways around these new techniques of repression.
1 of 1 people found the following review helpful

Format: Hardcover Amazon Verified Purchase

Dictatorships these days are trying to project a kinder, gentler image and preserve at least the appearance of democratic institutions and the rule of law, while preserving the authority of the regime. Dissidents are less likely to be killed or imprisoned for long terms than under, say, Stalin; most of today’s authoritarians (North Korea and Iran aside) prefer harassment and FUD (fear, uncertainty, and doubt) to the brutal methods of their predecessors. Facebook can be as much a battleground as the streets outside the presidential palace. Dobson does a superb job of illuminating this shadow war with face-to-face interviews from the front lines. I especially like his way of setting the scene and putting the reader on-site. You can see the walls of a Venezuelan women’s prison and feel the restricted life of a former judge, imprisoned by the Chavez regime for freeing an illegally imprisoned businessman.

Dobson illustrates the struggle for democratic reform in China, Russia, Egypt, Venezuela, and Malaysia. In each place he focuses on a few reformers and their relationship to the government – how the democracy activists manage to convoke protests that are not protests (a stroll in Beijing, for instance) and make the government look ridiculous (inducing them to arrest stuffed toys in Russia). Activists embarrass authoritarian regimes by forcing them to act against their own written laws. In turn, the governments intimidate would-be protesters with trumped-up criminal charges, street violence, computer spying, and a whole range of other tactics. Dobson’s intimate, one-on-one interviews with pro-democracy leaders give his writing a liveliness that is absent in much that is written about the struggle for democracy.

Dobson has many insights beyond what is in the daily press. The Arab Spring was much more planned and organized than it appeared to be, and there was an Internet-connected network of activists across the region sharing ideas and plans. What worked in one place was instantly shared with the others. A team of young Serbian activists, veterans of their own struggle against Milosevic, trains and advises pro-democracy groups around the world.

I used this book for a class reading in a foreign policy seminar I teach. It was a last-minute choice when a couple of other books I was considering didn’t pan out, and a throw of the dice because I hadn’t read it. The dice came up sevens – the class, an intelligent and thoughtful group, loved it.1 of 1 people found the following review helpful

By James M. Hammond on March 13, 2013

Format: Kindle Edition Amazon Verified Purchase

Some interesting examples of how modern dictators are changing their methods to more sophisticated ones. By using the principle of a “wolf in sheep’s clothing” they can “blind” the public to their true character. The foolish and the immature will follow a leader “over the cliff” if they promise a lot! The poor including the “poor in spirit” are particularly susceptible. The greedy are also easy to “buy off”. I am intrigued, however, by the creative non-violent approach espoused in the book. I think it has real possibilities but I wonder how effectively it could be applied in China against the CCP.1 of 1 people found the following review helpful

By L. Lueders on February 25, 2013

Format: Kindle Edition Amazon Verified Purchase

Dobson’s report from the dictator front benefits from his close contacts with the significant players at the top of these despotic regimes, and outlines in terrifying detail how those who wish to oppress their people are getting more and more sophisticated in their diabolical plans. The fight for freedom and democracy continues. Thanks for reminding us not to fall asleep at the wheel Mr. Dobson!1 of 1 people found the following review helpful

By Diane’s Fiance on February 19, 2013

Format: Kindle Edition Amazon Verified Purchase

Required reading for a class I’m taking and very enjoyable. Based on interviews with many of the movers and shakers who actually were involved. Very timely.
3 of 4 people found the following review helpful

Format: Hardcover Amazon Verified Purchase

The book was recommended by Fareed Zakaria. I live in Ecuador where we are undergoing this proc ess, called the socialist revolution of the 21st century. The book outlines the process perfectly.

2014年2月13日星期四

獨裁者的進化與學習

台灣過去兩年,公民運動沸沸揚揚,一個新成立的公民1985行動聯盟居然在沒有政黨運作的情況下,號招了廿五萬人上街頭!2013年7月初洪仲丘受虐死亡事件發生後,由39位互不相識、各行各業的網友發起公民1985行動聯盟這個民間組織,希望藉由訴求讓事件真相出爐,並且要求國軍改革,屏除以往的陋習及潛規則。短短兩週,兩度上街頭,打破台灣過去國內社會運動組織動員模式,這場由鄉民網路串聯發起的新型態參與充分表現出公民的力量。

我的祖國馬來西亞(Malaysia)也不平靜,2012年淨選盟3.0集會(Bersih 3.0 rally)由馬來西亞社會組織「乾淨與公平選舉聯盟2.0」(簡稱「淨選盟2.0」)主辦的抗議集會在2012年4月28日舉行,出席的人數超過十萬人。更早的2011年7月9日,在警方查封公路、關閉部份公共運輸站點的情況下,支持淨選盟2.0的人民以化整為零的方式徒步從四面八方進入吉隆坡市區,並突然在各處街頭聚集,並朝集會目的地默迪卡體育館(Stadium Merdeka)前進。結果,警方和聯邦後備隊(FRU)動用武力,以催淚彈和水炮驅散正往默迪卡體育館遊行的群眾,以瓦解聚集的群眾,過程中警方總共逮捕1,667人!

更甭提令人為之一振的阿拉伯之春(Arab Spring,الثورات العربية‎)。2010年12月17日,北非突尼西亞(Tunisia,الجمهورية التونسية‎)一名26歲青年穆罕默德·布瓦吉吉(Mohamed Bouazizi,محمد البوعزيزي)自焚身亡,觸發境內大規模街頭示威遊行及爭取民主活動。事件導致當時的總統班·阿里(Zine El Abidine Ben Ali,زين العابدين بن علي‎,1936-)政權倒台,成為阿拉伯國家中第一場因人民起義導致推翻現政權的革命。突尼西亞的茉莉花革命(Révolution de jasmin,ثورة الياسمين‎)以來,阿拉伯世界一些國家民眾紛紛走上街頭,要求推翻本國的專制政體的行動。突尼西亞、埃及(Egypt,جمهوريّة مصرالعربيّة)、利比亞( Libya,دولة ليبيا‎‎)與葉門(Yemen,الجمهورية اليمنية‎)的獨夫都被趕下台。

但阿拉伯世界只是第一戰線,阿拉伯之春也延燒至大中東以外,歐洲、美洲、亞洲無一倖免,影響世界的經濟和政治甚鉅。可是民主從此降臨到許多專制的國家了嗎?這本好書《獨裁者的進化:收編、分化、假民主》The Dictator’s Learning Curve: Inside the Global Battle for Democracy)要告訴我們,現在新形態的獨裁者,已經不像過去的那麼被動和愚蠢,他們已經進化了!

獨裁者的進化

The Dictator’s Learning Curve: Inside the Global Battle for Democracy

The Dictator’s Learning Curve: Inside the Global Battle for Democracy

The Dictator’s Learning Curve: Inside the Global Battle for Democracy

網路雜誌Slate政治與外交版編輯威廉.道布森(William J. Dobson)在《獨裁者的進化》,為我們宏觀地分析了現代極權主義的樣貌,讓我們理解新興的專制。這本書現在非常的應景,尤其是在發生了服貿協議的黑箱作業、苑裡反瘋車、大埔的抗議、馬王鬥,還有歷史課綱「微調」事件後,讀了這本《獨裁者的進化》,你會會心地一笑(或一哭)。

《獨裁者的進化》指出,在阿拉伯之春更早之前,2000年東歐的塞爾維亞(Republic of Serbia,Република Србија)發生革命後,世界上多了一個民主國家。2003年中亞的格魯吉亞(Georgia,საქართველო)、2004年東歐的烏克蘭(Ukraine,Україна)、2005年中亞的吉爾吉斯斯坦(Kyrgyzstan,Кыргыз Республикасы)等國相繼所發生的「顏色革命」(Color Revolutions),像征了自由對抗獨裁的高潮。到了2005年,全世界的民主國家總數,比起1974年葡萄牙年輕軍官聽到廣播電台播放那首號召起義的歌曲推翻葡萄牙的獨夫馬爾塞洛‧卡丹奴(Marcello Caetano,1906 –1980)時,已經增長了三倍以上。

然而好景不常。民主浪潮達到最高峰之後,獨裁者、暴君以及專制政府等等卻也不甘示弱卷土重來了。根據美國自由之家(Freedom House)的統計,過去五年,世界各地的政治自由開始一蹶不振。自由之家創立40年來專門評估自由趨勢,他們認為這五年乃是政治權利以及公民自由最長的連續低迷期。

亞洲多國發生軍事政變,民主政府被推翻,民粹的威權體制在南美洲站穩了腳跟。即使是新取得成功的格魯吉亞、烏克蘭以及吉爾吉斯,原來的成就似乎也土崩瓦解。到了2010年,民主國家的數量降到1995年以來的最低點。從委內瑞拉(Venezuela)到中國,從俄國(Russia,Российская Федерация)、烏克蘭到馬來西亞,從到敘利亞( Syria,الجمهوريّة العربيّة السّوريّة,ܩܘܛܢܝܘܬܐ ܥܪܒܝܬܐ ܫܐܡܝܬܐ)到伊朗(Iran,جمهوری اسلامی ایران),這麼多國家的極權政權還是極力鞏固權力,並設法面對人民這個最難預料與最大的威脅。

是民主制度本身出現問題了嗎?難道民主無法適應某些國家?道布森對此的見解是,問題並不在民主本身。如同阿拉伯之春於2011年提醒眾人,即使全球面臨經濟不景氣,政治以及經濟自由的理想還是不失其重要性。各地人民依然憧憬自由,這個並沒有改變。悄悄在改變的,是獨裁的「性質」。

《獨裁者的進化》指出,今日的獨裁者與上個世紀的不同,今日的專制威權,已經比從前精明老練靈活太多了,他們學習而且進化適應新情勢。民主聲勢浩大的進逼迫使數十個專制政府不得不從事新實驗、玩起有創意手法。現代的獨裁者練就了繼續掌權的新技巧、方法、模式,把專制威權制度帶入新紀元。例如,對於阿拉伯之春,中共官員還嘲笑他們道,卅年仍同一張面孔,難怪人民會厭煩,不像他們幾年就在檯面上換一批,讓人民無法覺察是仍被同一伙人統治。

《獨裁者的進化》表示,沒錯,有些老派而落伍的獨裁者確實步履蹣跚地來到了21世紀,如北韓(조선)、土庫曼斯坦(Turkmenistan)以及赤道幾內亞(República de Guinea Ecuatorial)等所代表過去的獨裁者,他們沒有聰明到掩飾自己的真面目。在其他專制國家學著進化、改變甚至繁榮的時候,這些老派專制國家落得貧窮且落後的下場。然而,不管獨夫再如何進化,其貪戀權力和權位,視憲政如糞土、視人民為草芥的本質,是永遠不變的!

《獨裁者的進化》指出,我們總是以為獨裁政權是笨拙、愚蠢、動作遲緩的大怪物。可是沒有獨裁者想成為下一個北韓,選汰的壓力太大了,進化出靈活應對的獨裁政權。他們再也不像北韓那樣完全愈活愈過去,還繼續用勞改、暴力、洗腦的手段控制人民,壓力漸大的時候,最聰明的獨裁者也不再把自己的國家變成警察國家,還不鎖國。新興的極權國家,如中國、俄羅斯、委內瑞拉、伊朗,反而給人民許多表面與程序上的自由,並偷偷滲透這些自由。在經濟上,新的獨裁者更聰明,不再封閉守貧,切斷與世界的聯繫。他們懂得如何從全球化的體系偷偷撈取資源,卻不會失利而喪失政權。

更賤的是,《獨裁者的進化》表示,今日的獨裁者已經知道,在這個全球化的世界裡,大規模逮捕、行刑隊、血腥鎮壓等較為殘暴的威嚇方式治標不治本,最好以較柔性的強迫方式取代。溫水煮青蛙,讓反對的人安怎死都莫宰羊。馬來西亞政府雖然在淨選盟3.0集會逮捕了千多人,可是絕大部分在警察局威迫利誘後,關了幾天全都放出,以免惹了民怨還讓他們吃政治牢飯賺政治資本。今日最有效率的獨裁政權不再強行逮捕人權團體成員,而是在官僚行動上派出稅吏或者衛生局官員讓反對團體疲於奔命甚至關門大吉。或者,想像一下如果你得罪了政府,辦個身份證時被政府從一個縣市踢到另一個縣市踢個不停吧XD

現代的獨裁者也懂得利用民主制度與威權政體之間的模糊空間,會想辦法利用民粹主義或民族主義等取得人民的支持。假如沒辦法讓人滿意,他們也可以透過恐嚇等威攝方法的車輪戰,讓異議人士疲於奔命並無所適從。還有,法律可以寫得很寬松,但遇上有威脅性的團體時,卻快、準、狠、辣,只許州官放火、不准百姓點燈地嚴以律人、寬以待己。平時政府辦事不利,司法不彰,可是要依法行政時卻超級有效率;今日的獨裁者也不再關閉所有的媒體,他們收買或收編主流媒體,再施捨地保留一些小型的言路,例如臉書讓民眾雖有局限的討論空間,只能打嘴砲。

新形態獨裁者還會三不五時提起自由、正義以及法治,比如中共的頭頭常常講到民主,還自稱是人民所選出來的領袖。這些人已經充分瞭解作表面功夫的重要。有些極權國家也常常舉行選舉,然後聲稱獨夫高票當選。例如,俄國的普丁(Vladimir Putin,Влади́мир Влади́мирович Пу́тин)總是宣稱高票當選,而且今日克裡姆林宮派出的選務人員作法和過去不同,票箱達到七成滿的時候,他們就不再往裡面塞選票了。獨裁者已經了解到,最好是贏得一場表面上看起來有競爭的選舉,而非公然舞弊。或者像馬來西亞那樣重劃選區,導致執政黨國陣雖然僅取得47.42%的普選票,卻獲得59.9%的國會議席!

乍看之下,許多威權專制國家看起來好似民主國家,其憲法也有行政、司法以及立法等權力分立,但還是跟民主國家有重大差異重要職位並不是選舉產生,而是由上級指派,而權力監督的程度也有異,權力分立和制衡虛有其表。有效的判斷方法是,民主政治重要的不是形式,也並非是投票選舉而已,而是公民的參與、有效的監督、法治的精神、獨立的司法、實質的公平、權力的制衡、自由的言論、多元的社會、開放的氣氛、透明的政策與進步的媒體。如果沒有這些機制,再多的選舉也只是金玉其外。

《獨裁者的進化》要我們不要灰心喪志,雖然獨裁者越來越靈活,可是反抗者的花招也越來越多。獨裁者現在要對付的人可多了:慈善家、學者、獨裁者和異議人士之間的抗爭,就像演化生物學裡的「紅后假設」(Red Queen Hypothesis),指彼此拮抗的生物(例如宿主和寄生生物、獵食者和獵物等)因為彼此競爭而會有快速共同演化的現象,就像強國之間的軍備競賽。

紅后假設來自英國作家卡洛(Lewis Carroll)在《愛麗絲夢遊仙境》Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland)的續作 《愛麗絲鏡中奇遇》(Through the Looking-Glass, and What Alice Found There)裡,描寫小女孩愛麗絲在夢中變成棋子,與紅后博弈。紅后腳步疾行如風,但人卻總留在原地,落後於她的愛麗絲喘著大氣說:「在我們家鄉,您走得這麼快,肯定早不知走到那去了!」,紅后說:「那是多慢的國度,在這你光是費勁跑,也只能留在原地。如果想到別的地方去,你至少得跑兩倍快才行!」

在世界各地,獨裁者與反抗者的備競賽,兩邊都都在磨練戰力。網路的無遠弗屆讓許多原本可以輕易掩蓋的骯髒事見光死!為了對抗進化的獨裁者,部落客、NGO、社運團體與學生團體就要像紅后那樣,得跑兩倍快才行。還有,用心讀這本好書《獨裁者的進化》,瞭解今日專制政權的內部運作,懂得獨裁者耍的花招,前往民主自由戰役的最前線

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3 Responses to The Dictator’s Learning Curve: Inside the Global Battle for Democracy 獨裁者的進化與學習

  1. 林 立偉 says:

    Raw food à la tartare most tender beef eye of Venus smoked, adding barbed wire or a mixture of salt, sugar and spices, the direct use of fire or heat source for heating food grilled pieces of meat will continue to burn the lowest temperature, ignition means combustible mixtures 4-6 pounds, the end of the secondary cold 80% virgin olive oil 20% and then mixed triple-pressed oils spaghetti, bacon, minced beef taste excellent, 190-200 ° C hot oil used as cook onion, ingredients wrapped with aluminum foil, the bacon fat caused viewpoint into the oven for heating, batter mostly eggs, sugar, flour and evaporated milk mixed with bacon or ham sheet with a hot cow capers the meat on both sides of the lumbar spine charcoal for heating a small amount of cooking oil heated to between 150-200 ° C with flesh and blood, such as beef curry grilled patty made ​​of ground meat marinated in lime juice, lime long halogen halide Wei Huo soy sauce, to the main ingredients tasty.

  2. 林 立偉 says:

    Summer heat is cold.

    Seasonal day and a little cool earth, for people with sensitive skin, is to be vigilant when cold or skin Do not wait until symptoms appear to come pay attention to maintenance.

    This weather, so cold, like the wind and rain corridor not cover wind, cold weather the recent dramatic increase in the number of shingles weather changes, the fall is one of atopic dermatitis predilection season. Itchy skin, especially in the extremities accounted for the bulk.

    Instead of cold is hot word used to describe a cryogenic objective conditions, a lack of heat and warm state. Cold is also used to indicate a similar status for subjective feelings.

    Heat stroke (Hyperthermia) is a subject of much outdoor air temperature wet or direct exposure to the sun for too long the animal body, the human body caused by abnormally elevated body temperature does not drop the symptoms caused by the generic term.

    Second law of thermodynamics (English: second law of thermodynamics) is one of the four basic laws of thermodynamics, thermodynamics of irreversible processes representation – isolated system spontaneously toward the thermodynamic equilibrium direction ── maximum entropy state ── evolution, similarly, perpetual motion machine of the second kind can never be achieved.

    In any case, the use of the air is lower than the temperature of the object and its surface in order to take away the heat, which is due to the second law of thermodynamics constraints, that it is impossible to spread the heat from a low temperature of objects without causing other hot objects changes.

    English: hidden; lunar; negative; overcast; shade; in intaglio; yin (female) Pinyin: yīn The word for knowing the word. From Fu (fù), from Yin, Yin (yīn) is also sound. Fu, soil Hill, from Fu and more concerned with the terrain. Simplified case of knowing, said Moonlight shrouded hill, very dark.

    1. The original meaning: the northern mountains, the water south [north of a hill or south of river] Yin, Yen also. North Mountain, the water south also. From Fu, from Yin. – “Said the text”

    Is defined as the arrival of summer.

    Cold air south and southwest monsoon brings warm air north collided trough of low pressure is generated in the South China Sea, but also because of the warm air and cold air north of the forces on or south, Hong Kong and other places for several days of continuous rain period, which was Hong Kong’s South China and other places before the flood season began, until July subtropical high northward to cooler air and low pressure trough a Beng promote China’s inland cities, Hong Kong, South China will end before the flood season.

    Climate including temperature, humidity, pressure, wind, rainfall, atmospheric particle count and numerous other meteorological elements in a very long time statistical data and specific regions.

    High pressure power.

    Cooling (Cooling) is the internal heat by thermal radiation, heat conduction or convection heat transfer medium to the environment in the process.

    The object is exposed to an air cooled in the air cooling method, provided that the air temperature is lower than the needed objects. If you object to increase or decrease the quality of the surface area can improve the cooling effect of air cooling.

    Fluid generally can be grouped into two categories:

    Liquids: can flow or spread, but there is a certain volume. Water is an example.
    Gas: can spread, the volume is not restricted, there is no fixed. Examples of air.

    Monsoon (also known as the monsoon) is a periodic wind, change with the seasons, and the prevailing wind (more than 40% wind frequency) season shear more than 120 degrees. Mainly in monsoon Asia (East Asia, South Asia), Guinea, West Africa and Australia and other places in northern coastal areas.

    Monsoon trough (Monsoon trough), meteorology term. Means at the forefront of the monsoon trough.

    Atmospheric pressure cloudy (lower) Sunny (increase) in the summer (low pressure) winter (high pressure) and summer high pressure who simply say winter is the density of the air pressure, just like on the plateau thin air, air pressure is low.

    After a summer of “cold bombing”, the spleen and stomach function will be weakened, plus the autumn windy, dry climate, little attention will be eyeing a fever, then it should choose some …

    Children’s summer anti-asthma “cold” allergies.

    Autumn there is a sense of trees wither, people tend to have a “Autumn”, so to cultivate optimism and maintain peace of mind to accommodate fall flat capacity of the gas.

    Physical weakness, said weakness, the weakness of chronic diseases

    Using drugs make or Sibu, are to tonic righting, Sibu sometimes more important than the drugs make, because I would like to be the tonic tonic not Quxie, and righting reach tonic righting requirements, so that the body’s yin and yang qi reach a new equilibrium, restore health, it is “drugs make

    Remember to wear jackets cold.

  3. 林 立偉 says:

    Taiwan Ryukyu holy temple tour Yi Heung Meizhou Matsu Temple ancestral pilgrimage – Xinhua blog – News Blog
    April 27 afternoon, the Holy Temple in Taiwan Ryukyu Township Committee Chair Mr. Hongqing Liang and Ms. Hung Huang silver tissue 29 worshipers Yi Meizhou Matsu Temple ancestral pilgrimage. Ms. Hung Huang Silver told reporters that they are the first to Meizhou Matsu Temple ancestral pilgrimage. Some time ago, she said she wanted to Matsu Tuomeng back “home” to see, so
    big5.xinhuanet.com/gate/big5/ mzmz323.home.news.cn/blog/a / … inventory page – this station more results

    Ryukyu (Japanese: ri ゅ u ki ゅ u, Ryukyu language central dialect: Ryukyu, Chinese characters: ru ー ち ゅ ー, IPA: [ɾuːt͡ɕuː]), native also known as Yu-flow anesthesia (Ryukyu language central dialect: u ru ma / Yu-flow anesthesia, Latin : Uruma), is between a region between Taiwan and Kyushu, the jurisdiction of the domain, including the Ryukyu Islands and the surrounding seas. Once to China’s Ming and Qing dynasties tribute, after the 17th-century Japan, China two genera, while the tribute to the two countries, and the Amami islands in the north was occupied by Japan, the rest of the region in the 19th century by the Japanese scrap fan home county, renamed Okinawa County.

    More information: Ryukyu Shinto religion and Ryukyu
    Ryukyu traditional beliefs (also called Ryukyu Shinto) is a local indigenous religion, Buddhism, Shintoism, Taoism complex. Including both local underwater belief, there are foreign Mazu beliefs.

    Buddhism also is common in the local.

    Introduction to historical sites and historical research – Taiwan papers

    5 Dutch (1624 – 1662) to Batavia (Jakarta) Asian headquarters in East trade stronghold actively seek to facilitate trade with China … Pipeline: Yuan-Liou Publishing House published “Taiwan depth Travel Guide” a ~ 11 (including the Three Gorges, freshwater, Taipei, Lukang, Yilan, Tainan, Keelung and other places, year of publication for 1990~1998 …
    scholar.fju.edu.tw/ syllabus / upload / 063986 / content / 961 / D-HT00 … – More results of this station

    Wedding is a wedding and the wedding the bride wore Western-style wedding dress, wedding dress can be a single means wearing a dress, you can also include the veil, bouquet part. Wedding colors, styles, etc. depending on various factors, including culture, religion and fashion trends and so on.

    Taiwan since ancient times for aboriginal native land [9], to the mid-17th century into the other ethnic groups and cultures, before they have appeared in the records of state power [10] [11], has gone through the history-filled history, most recently for 1945 included in the territory of the Republic of China [12]. ROC government in mid-December 1949 due to the civil war defeat retreating to Taiwan, Taiwan Republic of China has so far become the main land, and thus “Taiwan” has become the word on behalf of the Republic of China is mainly known in the international arena since 1950.
    Son of Heaven, one of China’s rulers of the title, a title for the highest since the Zhou dynasty monarch. Its intent: monarch that God’s son, on behalf of Chinese monarch consider themselves its power source is God. Since the beginning of the Qin Shi Huang, China’s rulers will crown the title of Emperor, but still also known as the emperor. Similar Chanyu [1] [2], the emperor [3] [4] [5], Khan [6] and so on.
    The emperor’s command, also known as the decree, while the well-known “Mukden Cheng Yunhuang Dizhao said,” a speech, highlighting the power of the monarch ordered on the day of the origins, divine right of kings think. “Heaven” in this meaning as “Heaven” or “God.”
    China centrism, is that China is a central concept in the world, is an ancient Chinese worldview. In modern times it is also considered the performance of ethnocentricity of many nationalities have.
    Formosa Triangle (English: Formosa Triangle; Japanese: ド Getting Gosenol nn nn Suites Corning LITE ア Hikaru), also known as the Dragon Triangle (Dragon’s Triangle), Sea Devil, Devil Sea (Devil’s Sea). Is located in the Western Pacific region of the Tropic of Cancer in a triangle, and is located in the western Atlantic as the Tropic of Cancer in the Bermuda Triangle is prone to crash and shipwreck waters.
    Formosa triangle a triangular area from the western end of this nickname ── Taiwan “Formosa (Formosa).” Like Bermuda Triangle (Bermuda Triangle) its easternmost Bermuda Islands (The Bermuda Islands) name. This article is named according to the geographical environment.
    Near the northeast boundary: (Ağrı Dağı Turkish), located in Turkey 厄德尔 province, the highest peak in Turkey, only 16 km away from the Iranian border, and is only 32 kilometers away from the borders of Armenia, even overlooking Mount Ararat in Armenia capital Yerevan, the result of the Christian Bible, “Genesis,” an article in the records, the famous Noah’s Ark after the Great Flood, the last parking place in the mountains of Ararat, and therefore makes Ararat in Europe, Christian world renowned for West Asia.

    Creationism or creationism common in ancient human record and “outside” “to” intellectual dialogue ancient records [1].

    Catholic classics as “The Bible”, also known as the “New Old Testament.” Believe in God the Father Son Holy Trinity. The Catholic Church uses the Holy statist, celibate clergy pursue Catholic “Church Code” is the basic law of the Church, for the specification of all aspects of religious life.

    Pepi II (Pepy II) (before 2284 – before 2184), the sixth dynasty Egyptian pharaoh (BC 2278 – BC 2184 reign), according to records of its reign as long as 94 years, is the world’s history the longest reigning monarch. Pepi II’s reign, the Egyptian Old Kingdom era is nearing the end of the monarchy increasingly undermined the independence of Nome (state) gradually increased. These circumstances reflected in the temple of Pharaoh to liberate the farmers to get rid of all Nome “royal servitude” and issued decree.
    Chinese astrology in ancient doctrines, Sirius is “trillion Lord aggression” evil star. Qu Yuan in the “Nine Songs Dongjun” wrote: “For a long vector Xi Sirius radio” to compare Sirius is located northwest of Chu Qin. Sushi “Jiang Chengzi” in “will pull Diaogong like the full moon, looking northwest, Sirius radio,” Sirius compare to the northwest border of the Western Xia Song threats. In Western culture, people view them as dogs. Culture will star together with the bow and arrow. Ancient Chinese people will combine it with Puppis and Canis Major, thought of as a large bow across the southern sky, the arrow for Sirius. Similar combinations also appeared on Egyptian Dan Dela (Dendera) of Hathor temple mural, Saudi goddess (Satis) arrow painted on her head of a cow goddess Hathor (Sirius) on. In the late Persian culture, the star called Tir, and be treated as an arrow.
    Justice or justice (English: Justice; German: Gerechtigkeit) is about appropriate arrangements within the concept of social things and people, this concept is constantly thinking and debate on philosophy, law and theology of history topics.
    Paper money, including paper money, deep notes, offerings, Mingbi, gold paper, silver paper, paper mulberry, nether paper, Ryukyu language known to play paper (playing チ paper, ウ チ ka Bldg) or paper money (paper money, ka Bldg ji nn), the East Asian tradition worship spirits, when one of the ancestors of cremation ritual items.

    Hai is one of the Earthly Branches, usually when the first twelve Earthly Branches, but the cause of Earthly recycled, so its front is Xu, followed by sub.

    Hai lunar month in October, Hai Shi for the 24-hour clock 21:00 to 23:00, in the direction that NNW. Five years Hai represents water, yin and yang theory in Hai Yin.

    Sim, Heavenly eighth place. It refers to the west-northwest (285 °) in azimuth, five elements are gold, yin and yang, yin. Heavenly also said that the growth cycle of plants, Sim refers to a new round of seeds, extension things updated.

    German astronomer Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel infer that there is a Sirius companion was not found in the change in 1844 from Sirius’s own movements. [28] Nearly 20 years later, American telescope makers and astronomers Avatar Graham Clark (Alvan Graham Clark) on January 31, 1862 for the first time observed Fengyun dim companion. Astronomers call this companion of Sirius B, or affectionately known as “coyotes.”
    China Times 2013-02-17 01:35 [Lizong You ╱ Taipei】 “The meteorite fell in Russia, injuring more than a thousand, although very bad, but also very lucky not to cause more casualties!” Astronomical research center of the University of Professor Ye Yong Xuan pointed out that in the past we believe that comet or asteroid hit the Earth is “crying wolf”, but this time the wolf really came, although it is only coyotes, but also remind you to seriously face the possible impact small bodies from outer space devastating threat to Earth.
    (End of life) (not heaven) (delete Perpignan two is deleted) (Bermuda Delta secret) (termination)

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