The Dictator’s Learning Curve: Inside the Global Battle for Democracy 獨裁者的進化與學習

Posted on 4/8/2014 5:57 am @ Taipei, Taiwan

source Amazon:

The Dictator’s Learning Curve: Inside the Global Battle for Democracy

The Dictator’s Learning Curve: Inside the Global Battle for Democracy

by William J. Dobson

In this riveting anatomy of authoritarianism, acclaimed journalist William Dobson takes us inside the battle between dictators and those who would challenge their rule. Recent history has seen an incredible moment in the war between dictators and democracy—with waves of protests sweeping Syria and Yemen, and despots falling in Egypt, Tunisia, and Libya. But the Arab Spring is only the latest front in a global battle between freedom and repression, a battle that, until recently, dictators have been winning hands-down. The problem is that today’s authoritarians are not like the frozen-in-time, ready-to-crack regimes of Burma and North Korea. They are ever-morphing, technologically savvy, and internationally connected, and have replaced more brutal forms of intimidation with subtle coercion.The Dictator’s Learning Curve explains this historic moment and provides crucial insight into the fight for democracy.

Product Details

Editorial Reviews


Praise for William J. Dobson’s The Dictator’s Learning Curve:

“Intelligent and absorbing. . . . Mr. Dobson’s book, with luck, will find its way into the hands of people who aspire to be free.”
The New York Times

“An essential perspective on a crucial struggle. . . . Dobson is that rare thinker who combines a gift for storytelling with an understanding of how the world works.”
—Fareed Zakaria

“[Dobson] writes with exemplary clarity and a sharp eye for color. . . . Timely, authoritative, and as readable as a novel, this is one of the season’s most resonant books—not least because it ends on a note of guarded hope for the future.”

“A brilliant and original analysis of the nature of modern authoritarianism.”
—Anne Applebaum, author of Iron Curtain, winner of the Pulitzer Prize

“[A] deft, incisive book. . . . The mix of perspectives results in an impressive overview of the global struggle between authoritarian power and determined advocates of political freedom.”
Publishers Weekly, starred review

“Dobson has invested time and insight, from China to Venezuela, and Egypt to Russia, trying to capture the shape-changing nature of modern authoritarianism, and the resourcefulness and wit of its opponents. . . . [He] captures empathetically the skill and insight of modern neo-despots – in much the way their more successful opponents do. . . . Rare is the book on dictatorship that can end on an uplifting note that its narrative carefully substantiates.”
Financial Times

“William J. Dobson’s exploration of the contest between contemporary dictatorships and those who rebel against them is valuable because it offers a sober analysis of both sides. Dobson traveled nearly 100,000 miles researching this book, which takes a close look at the face of modern authoritarianism. . . . His book may be about the struggle for freedom of other countries’ citizens, but there are lessons in it for the preservation of our own.”
The Washington Post

“[A] thoughtful journey through formidable dictatorships of our time. . . . Instead of offering caricatures of vintage dictators, Dobson observes the more dangerous trend—of dictators adopting the form of democratic governance, while draining it of any substance.”
The Independent

“Dobson’s is a terrific book to argue with. And it’s hard to think of a higher compliment for a book about Big Ideas.”
Christian Science Monitor

“Says something really fresh about the world we live in.”
—Michael Burleigh, The Telegraph’s Best Books of 2012

“After a remarkable year in which citizens of a dozen countries have challenged their authoritarian governments, readers will welcome veteran journalist Dobson’s overview of the complicated dance of adaptation by the world’s dictators and those who resist their oppressive power. . . . A timely, valuable contribution to readers’ understanding of global unrest.”

“Colorful and sharply reported.”
Bloomberg BusinessWeek

“Fascinating . . . some of Dobson’s most astute observations come from his reporting about China. The Chinese communists, he concludes, are the least complacent of today’s modern authoritarians.”
Foreign Policy

“A vivid real-time portrait of the movement for democracy. Among its virtues, Dobson’s book clarifies the ways in which the recent challenge to dictatorship represents a coordinated worldwide effort, and the ways in which each country’s struggle is unique.”
—James Fallows, national correspondent for The Atlantic and author of China Airborne

“It is hard to imagine a timelier book than this one. William Dobson provides a new framework and a new vocabulary for understanding modern authoritarianism, backed up by detailed and gripping stories of dictators and their citizen opponents in Russia, China, Venezuela, Egypt, and Malaysia. Anyone seeking to make sense of the extraordinary tide of revolutions and protests sweeping around the world will find The Dictator’s Learning Curve an indispensable read.”
—Anne-Marie Slaughter, Bert G. Kerstetter ‘66 University Professor of Politics and International Affairs, Princeton University, and former Director of Policy Planning, U.S. State Department

“William J. Dobson vividly portrays [the] struggle against authoritarian rule …Dobson’s coverage of Venezuela’s internal political struggles is particularly fascinating. He had spectacular access to well-placed sources in this oil-rich country, including political prisoners.”
Wilson Quarterly

“Dobson’s book ends up not only a sophisticated but also a wonderfully readable account of the latest installments in an age-old type of struggle.”
Pacific Standard

“Dobson has interviewed scores of protesters, security experts, opposition political candidates, elite power brokers, and a former Egyptian police officer who, from his computer in the United States, guided protesters occupying Tahrir Square…As a result, the reader gets a wide-ranging overview of political strife as we live it now.”
The Weekly Standard

“Timely…Dobson chronicles in detail the ingenious but sinister ways in which modern authoritarian regimes are suppressing dissent.”
The Journal of Democracy

“A fluid study of how heavy-handed repression by authoritarian regimes has given way to more subtle forms of control. . . . A pertinent work of journalistic research that will gain fresh meaning as authoritarian regimes both evolve and fall.”
Kirkus Reviews

About the Author

William J. Dobson is politics and foreign affairs editor for Slate. He has been an editor at Foreign AffairsNewsweek International, and Foreign Policy. During his tenure at Foreign Policy, the magazine was nominated for the coveted National Magazine Award for General Excellence each year and won top honors in 2007 and 2009. His articles and essays have appeared in The New York TimesThe Washington Post, and The Wall Street Journal, and he has provided analysis for ABC, CNN, CBS, MSNBC, and NPR. He lives in Washington, DC.


William J. Dobson is the politics & foreign affairs editor for Slate. Previously, he served as the managing editor of Foreign Policy magazine. Under his editorial direction, the magazine was nominated for the National Magazine Award five years in a row–the only publication of its size to be nominated for five consecutive years–and in 2007 and 2009, Foreign Policy won the overall award for General Excellence. Earlier in his career, Mr. Dobson served as Newsweek International’s Senior Editor for Asia and as Associate Editor at Foreign Affairs.

During the height of the Arab Spring, the Washington Post editorial page commissioned Mr. Dobson to write daily online pieces on modern authoritarianism. While in Cairo, Mr. Dobson reported the first direct first-person account of the Egyptian military conducting torture of female protestors from Tahrir Square.

Mr. Dobson has published widely on international politics. His articles and op-eds have appeared in the New York Times, Washington Post, Financial Times, Wall Street Journal, Boston Globe, Foreign Policy, The New Republic, Newsweek, and elsewhere. He has provided commentary and analysis on international politics for ABC, CNN, CBS, MSNBC, and NPR.

From 2008 to 2009, Mr. Dobson was a Visiting Scholar at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. In 2006, Mr. Dobson was named a Young Global Leader by the World Economic Forum. He has been recognized and awarded honors by a number of international foundations, including the Salzburg Global Seminar, the East-West Center, the Knight Foundation, the Council for the United States and Italy, and the Singapore International Foundation. He has received fellowships from Harvard University, the University of Chicago, and Stanford University. Mr. Dobson is a 1994 Truman Scholar.

Mr. Dobson holds a law degree from Harvard Law School and a Masters degree in East Asian Studies from Harvard University. He received his bachelor’s degree, summa cum laude, from Middlebury College. He lives in Washington, DC.

Most Helpful Customer Reviews

24 of 31 people found the following review helpful

By Fastbreak on June 13, 2012

Format: Hardcover

Every once in a while — and by while I mean at least several years — a book comes along that stops you in your tracks. The Dictator’s Learning Curve is one of those books. Dobson’s well researched and proven thesis of how dictators manipulate the trappings of democracy to in fact become more autocratic is simply breathtaking. The way he demonstrates how Mubarak, Putin, Chavez and China’s repressive leaders all essentially mimic one another in their techinques is extraordinary. The stories of the opposition leaders in these countries, many of them youthful, are heroic. And the timing of this book could not be better with Putin’s return to the presidency, Egypt in transition, and Chavez’s bid for reelection. A book for both the foreign policy wonk and the reader who follows the news abroad but wants a deeper understanding of what’s really happening.


2 of 2 people found the following review helpful

By Walt VINE VOICE on February 25, 2013

Format: Hardcover

The Dictator’s Learning Curve provides an insightful view of the new face of tyranny. Many modern dictators have learned to preserve their power by more subtle means than concentration camps or massacres in the street. Seemingly reasonable bureaucratic requirements for the media or for receiving government assistance can be just as effective as more brutal means at stifling open dissent.
For example, Putin’s elections, free but structured so that the opposition cannot win, are just as effective as Stalin’s Gulag in keeping the regime in power, but are much less disruptive of Russian society. Dissident media offices are shut down, not by club-wielding thugs, but by having their computers confiscated because they contain unlicensed software.
Dobson’s provides many examples from Russia, China, Serbia, the Middle East, and Venezuela. He also illustrates the ways democracy advocates oppose these new tactics, such as the Egyptian riot policeman who clandestinely publishes a guide for protestors, showing how to stymy his colleagues’ tactics.
Dobson also provides a good introduction to the work of Gene Sharp, the American professor who has developed creative ways around these new techniques of repression.
1 of 1 people found the following review helpful

Format: Hardcover Amazon Verified Purchase

Dictatorships these days are trying to project a kinder, gentler image and preserve at least the appearance of democratic institutions and the rule of law, while preserving the authority of the regime. Dissidents are less likely to be killed or imprisoned for long terms than under, say, Stalin; most of today’s authoritarians (North Korea and Iran aside) prefer harassment and FUD (fear, uncertainty, and doubt) to the brutal methods of their predecessors. Facebook can be as much a battleground as the streets outside the presidential palace. Dobson does a superb job of illuminating this shadow war with face-to-face interviews from the front lines. I especially like his way of setting the scene and putting the reader on-site. You can see the walls of a Venezuelan women’s prison and feel the restricted life of a former judge, imprisoned by the Chavez regime for freeing an illegally imprisoned businessman.

Dobson illustrates the struggle for democratic reform in China, Russia, Egypt, Venezuela, and Malaysia. In each place he focuses on a few reformers and their relationship to the government – how the democracy activists manage to convoke protests that are not protests (a stroll in Beijing, for instance) and make the government look ridiculous (inducing them to arrest stuffed toys in Russia). Activists embarrass authoritarian regimes by forcing them to act against their own written laws. In turn, the governments intimidate would-be protesters with trumped-up criminal charges, street violence, computer spying, and a whole range of other tactics. Dobson’s intimate, one-on-one interviews with pro-democracy leaders give his writing a liveliness that is absent in much that is written about the struggle for democracy.

Dobson has many insights beyond what is in the daily press. The Arab Spring was much more planned and organized than it appeared to be, and there was an Internet-connected network of activists across the region sharing ideas and plans. What worked in one place was instantly shared with the others. A team of young Serbian activists, veterans of their own struggle against Milosevic, trains and advises pro-democracy groups around the world.

I used this book for a class reading in a foreign policy seminar I teach. It was a last-minute choice when a couple of other books I was considering didn’t pan out, and a throw of the dice because I hadn’t read it. The dice came up sevens – the class, an intelligent and thoughtful group, loved it.1 of 1 people found the following review helpful

By James M. Hammond on March 13, 2013

Format: Kindle Edition Amazon Verified Purchase

Some interesting examples of how modern dictators are changing their methods to more sophisticated ones. By using the principle of a “wolf in sheep’s clothing” they can “blind” the public to their true character. The foolish and the immature will follow a leader “over the cliff” if they promise a lot! The poor including the “poor in spirit” are particularly susceptible. The greedy are also easy to “buy off”. I am intrigued, however, by the creative non-violent approach espoused in the book. I think it has real possibilities but I wonder how effectively it could be applied in China against the CCP.1 of 1 people found the following review helpful

By L. Lueders on February 25, 2013

Format: Kindle Edition Amazon Verified Purchase

Dobson’s report from the dictator front benefits from his close contacts with the significant players at the top of these despotic regimes, and outlines in terrifying detail how those who wish to oppress their people are getting more and more sophisticated in their diabolical plans. The fight for freedom and democracy continues. Thanks for reminding us not to fall asleep at the wheel Mr. Dobson!1 of 1 people found the following review helpful

By Diane’s Fiance on February 19, 2013

Format: Kindle Edition Amazon Verified Purchase

Required reading for a class I’m taking and very enjoyable. Based on interviews with many of the movers and shakers who actually were involved. Very timely.
3 of 4 people found the following review helpful

Format: Hardcover Amazon Verified Purchase

The book was recommended by Fareed Zakaria. I live in Ecuador where we are undergoing this proc ess, called the socialist revolution of the 21st century. The book outlines the process perfectly.




我的祖國馬來西亞(Malaysia)也不平靜,2012年淨選盟3.0集會(Bersih 3.0 rally)由馬來西亞社會組織「乾淨與公平選舉聯盟2.0」(簡稱「淨選盟2.0」)主辦的抗議集會在2012年4月28日舉行,出席的人數超過十萬人。更早的2011年7月9日,在警方查封公路、關閉部份公共運輸站點的情況下,支持淨選盟2.0的人民以化整為零的方式徒步從四面八方進入吉隆坡市區,並突然在各處街頭聚集,並朝集會目的地默迪卡體育館(Stadium Merdeka)前進。結果,警方和聯邦後備隊(FRU)動用武力,以催淚彈和水炮驅散正往默迪卡體育館遊行的群眾,以瓦解聚集的群眾,過程中警方總共逮捕1,667人!

更甭提令人為之一振的阿拉伯之春(Arab Spring,الثورات العربية‎)。2010年12月17日,北非突尼西亞(Tunisia,الجمهورية التونسية‎)一名26歲青年穆罕默德·布瓦吉吉(Mohamed Bouazizi,محمد البوعزيزي)自焚身亡,觸發境內大規模街頭示威遊行及爭取民主活動。事件導致當時的總統班·阿里(Zine El Abidine Ben Ali,زين العابدين بن علي‎,1936-)政權倒台,成為阿拉伯國家中第一場因人民起義導致推翻現政權的革命。突尼西亞的茉莉花革命(Révolution de jasmin,ثورة الياسمين‎)以來,阿拉伯世界一些國家民眾紛紛走上街頭,要求推翻本國的專制政體的行動。突尼西亞、埃及(Egypt,جمهوريّة مصرالعربيّة)、利比亞( Libya,دولة ليبيا‎‎)與葉門(Yemen,الجمهورية اليمنية‎)的獨夫都被趕下台。

但阿拉伯世界只是第一戰線,阿拉伯之春也延燒至大中東以外,歐洲、美洲、亞洲無一倖免,影響世界的經濟和政治甚鉅。可是民主從此降臨到許多專制的國家了嗎?這本好書《獨裁者的進化:收編、分化、假民主》The Dictator’s Learning Curve: Inside the Global Battle for Democracy)要告訴我們,現在新形態的獨裁者,已經不像過去的那麼被動和愚蠢,他們已經進化了!


The Dictator’s Learning Curve: Inside the Global Battle for Democracy

The Dictator’s Learning Curve: Inside the Global Battle for Democracy

The Dictator’s Learning Curve: Inside the Global Battle for Democracy

網路雜誌Slate政治與外交版編輯威廉.道布森(William J. Dobson)在《獨裁者的進化》,為我們宏觀地分析了現代極權主義的樣貌,讓我們理解新興的專制。這本書現在非常的應景,尤其是在發生了服貿協議的黑箱作業、苑裡反瘋車、大埔的抗議、馬王鬥,還有歷史課綱「微調」事件後,讀了這本《獨裁者的進化》,你會會心地一笑(或一哭)。

《獨裁者的進化》指出,在阿拉伯之春更早之前,2000年東歐的塞爾維亞(Republic of Serbia,Република Србија)發生革命後,世界上多了一個民主國家。2003年中亞的格魯吉亞(Georgia,საქართველო)、2004年東歐的烏克蘭(Ukraine,Україна)、2005年中亞的吉爾吉斯斯坦(Kyrgyzstan,Кыргыз Республикасы)等國相繼所發生的「顏色革命」(Color Revolutions),像征了自由對抗獨裁的高潮。到了2005年,全世界的民主國家總數,比起1974年葡萄牙年輕軍官聽到廣播電台播放那首號召起義的歌曲推翻葡萄牙的獨夫馬爾塞洛‧卡丹奴(Marcello Caetano,1906 –1980)時,已經增長了三倍以上。

然而好景不常。民主浪潮達到最高峰之後,獨裁者、暴君以及專制政府等等卻也不甘示弱卷土重來了。根據美國自由之家(Freedom House)的統計,過去五年,世界各地的政治自由開始一蹶不振。自由之家創立40年來專門評估自由趨勢,他們認為這五年乃是政治權利以及公民自由最長的連續低迷期。

亞洲多國發生軍事政變,民主政府被推翻,民粹的威權體制在南美洲站穩了腳跟。即使是新取得成功的格魯吉亞、烏克蘭以及吉爾吉斯,原來的成就似乎也土崩瓦解。到了2010年,民主國家的數量降到1995年以來的最低點。從委內瑞拉(Venezuela)到中國,從俄國(Russia,Российская Федерация)、烏克蘭到馬來西亞,從到敘利亞( Syria,الجمهوريّة العربيّة السّوريّة,ܩܘܛܢܝܘܬܐ ܥܪܒܝܬܐ ܫܐܡܝܬܐ)到伊朗(Iran,جمهوری اسلامی ایران),這麼多國家的極權政權還是極力鞏固權力,並設法面對人民這個最難預料與最大的威脅。



《獨裁者的進化》表示,沒錯,有些老派而落伍的獨裁者確實步履蹣跚地來到了21世紀,如北韓(조선)、土庫曼斯坦(Turkmenistan)以及赤道幾內亞(República de Guinea Ecuatorial)等所代表過去的獨裁者,他們沒有聰明到掩飾自己的真面目。在其他專制國家學著進化、改變甚至繁榮的時候,這些老派專制國家落得貧窮且落後的下場。然而,不管獨夫再如何進化,其貪戀權力和權位,視憲政如糞土、視人民為草芥的本質,是永遠不變的!




新形態獨裁者還會三不五時提起自由、正義以及法治,比如中共的頭頭常常講到民主,還自稱是人民所選出來的領袖。這些人已經充分瞭解作表面功夫的重要。有些極權國家也常常舉行選舉,然後聲稱獨夫高票當選。例如,俄國的普丁(Vladimir Putin,Влади́мир Влади́мирович Пу́тин)總是宣稱高票當選,而且今日克裡姆林宮派出的選務人員作法和過去不同,票箱達到七成滿的時候,他們就不再往裡面塞選票了。獨裁者已經了解到,最好是贏得一場表面上看起來有競爭的選舉,而非公然舞弊。或者像馬來西亞那樣重劃選區,導致執政黨國陣雖然僅取得47.42%的普選票,卻獲得59.9%的國會議席!


《獨裁者的進化》要我們不要灰心喪志,雖然獨裁者越來越靈活,可是反抗者的花招也越來越多。獨裁者現在要對付的人可多了:慈善家、學者、獨裁者和異議人士之間的抗爭,就像演化生物學裡的「紅后假設」(Red Queen Hypothesis),指彼此拮抗的生物(例如宿主和寄生生物、獵食者和獵物等)因為彼此競爭而會有快速共同演化的現象,就像強國之間的軍備競賽。

紅后假設來自英國作家卡洛(Lewis Carroll)在《愛麗絲夢遊仙境》Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland)的續作 《愛麗絲鏡中奇遇》(Through the Looking-Glass, and What Alice Found There)裡,描寫小女孩愛麗絲在夢中變成棋子,與紅后博弈。紅后腳步疾行如風,但人卻總留在原地,落後於她的愛麗絲喘著大氣說:「在我們家鄉,您走得這麼快,肯定早不知走到那去了!」,紅后說:「那是多慢的國度,在這你光是費勁跑,也只能留在原地。如果想到別的地方去,你至少得跑兩倍快才行!」



About GhettoRacer

racer, driver coach, taoist, yogi, dreamweaver, bballer, rebel, philosopher, entrepreneur, kiva, lonewolf, vagabond, photo/video shooter, storyteller
This entry was posted in Book Recommendations, East/West/translations, Good Guys List - my heros & inspirations, Human Rights, Life/Musings, PSA - public service announcements, Relevant News, The Truth, The Realist and tagged . Bookmark the permalink.

3 Responses to The Dictator’s Learning Curve: Inside the Global Battle for Democracy 獨裁者的進化與學習

  1. 林 立偉 says:

    Raw food à la tartare most tender beef eye of Venus smoked, adding barbed wire or a mixture of salt, sugar and spices, the direct use of fire or heat source for heating food grilled pieces of meat will continue to burn the lowest temperature, ignition means combustible mixtures 4-6 pounds, the end of the secondary cold 80% virgin olive oil 20% and then mixed triple-pressed oils spaghetti, bacon, minced beef taste excellent, 190-200 ° C hot oil used as cook onion, ingredients wrapped with aluminum foil, the bacon fat caused viewpoint into the oven for heating, batter mostly eggs, sugar, flour and evaporated milk mixed with bacon or ham sheet with a hot cow capers the meat on both sides of the lumbar spine charcoal for heating a small amount of cooking oil heated to between 150-200 ° C with flesh and blood, such as beef curry grilled patty made ​​of ground meat marinated in lime juice, lime long halogen halide Wei Huo soy sauce, to the main ingredients tasty.

  2. 林 立偉 says:

    Summer heat is cold.

    Seasonal day and a little cool earth, for people with sensitive skin, is to be vigilant when cold or skin Do not wait until symptoms appear to come pay attention to maintenance.

    This weather, so cold, like the wind and rain corridor not cover wind, cold weather the recent dramatic increase in the number of shingles weather changes, the fall is one of atopic dermatitis predilection season. Itchy skin, especially in the extremities accounted for the bulk.

    Instead of cold is hot word used to describe a cryogenic objective conditions, a lack of heat and warm state. Cold is also used to indicate a similar status for subjective feelings.

    Heat stroke (Hyperthermia) is a subject of much outdoor air temperature wet or direct exposure to the sun for too long the animal body, the human body caused by abnormally elevated body temperature does not drop the symptoms caused by the generic term.

    Second law of thermodynamics (English: second law of thermodynamics) is one of the four basic laws of thermodynamics, thermodynamics of irreversible processes representation – isolated system spontaneously toward the thermodynamic equilibrium direction ── maximum entropy state ── evolution, similarly, perpetual motion machine of the second kind can never be achieved.

    In any case, the use of the air is lower than the temperature of the object and its surface in order to take away the heat, which is due to the second law of thermodynamics constraints, that it is impossible to spread the heat from a low temperature of objects without causing other hot objects changes.

    English: hidden; lunar; negative; overcast; shade; in intaglio; yin (female) Pinyin: yīn The word for knowing the word. From Fu (fù), from Yin, Yin (yīn) is also sound. Fu, soil Hill, from Fu and more concerned with the terrain. Simplified case of knowing, said Moonlight shrouded hill, very dark.

    1. The original meaning: the northern mountains, the water south [north of a hill or south of river] Yin, Yen also. North Mountain, the water south also. From Fu, from Yin. – “Said the text”

    Is defined as the arrival of summer.

    Cold air south and southwest monsoon brings warm air north collided trough of low pressure is generated in the South China Sea, but also because of the warm air and cold air north of the forces on or south, Hong Kong and other places for several days of continuous rain period, which was Hong Kong’s South China and other places before the flood season began, until July subtropical high northward to cooler air and low pressure trough a Beng promote China’s inland cities, Hong Kong, South China will end before the flood season.

    Climate including temperature, humidity, pressure, wind, rainfall, atmospheric particle count and numerous other meteorological elements in a very long time statistical data and specific regions.

    High pressure power.

    Cooling (Cooling) is the internal heat by thermal radiation, heat conduction or convection heat transfer medium to the environment in the process.

    The object is exposed to an air cooled in the air cooling method, provided that the air temperature is lower than the needed objects. If you object to increase or decrease the quality of the surface area can improve the cooling effect of air cooling.

    Fluid generally can be grouped into two categories:

    Liquids: can flow or spread, but there is a certain volume. Water is an example.
    Gas: can spread, the volume is not restricted, there is no fixed. Examples of air.

    Monsoon (also known as the monsoon) is a periodic wind, change with the seasons, and the prevailing wind (more than 40% wind frequency) season shear more than 120 degrees. Mainly in monsoon Asia (East Asia, South Asia), Guinea, West Africa and Australia and other places in northern coastal areas.

    Monsoon trough (Monsoon trough), meteorology term. Means at the forefront of the monsoon trough.

    Atmospheric pressure cloudy (lower) Sunny (increase) in the summer (low pressure) winter (high pressure) and summer high pressure who simply say winter is the density of the air pressure, just like on the plateau thin air, air pressure is low.

    After a summer of “cold bombing”, the spleen and stomach function will be weakened, plus the autumn windy, dry climate, little attention will be eyeing a fever, then it should choose some …

    Children’s summer anti-asthma “cold” allergies.

    Autumn there is a sense of trees wither, people tend to have a “Autumn”, so to cultivate optimism and maintain peace of mind to accommodate fall flat capacity of the gas.

    Physical weakness, said weakness, the weakness of chronic diseases

    Using drugs make or Sibu, are to tonic righting, Sibu sometimes more important than the drugs make, because I would like to be the tonic tonic not Quxie, and righting reach tonic righting requirements, so that the body’s yin and yang qi reach a new equilibrium, restore health, it is “drugs make

    Remember to wear jackets cold.

  3. 林 立偉 says:

    Taiwan Ryukyu holy temple tour Yi Heung Meizhou Matsu Temple ancestral pilgrimage – Xinhua blog – News Blog
    April 27 afternoon, the Holy Temple in Taiwan Ryukyu Township Committee Chair Mr. Hongqing Liang and Ms. Hung Huang silver tissue 29 worshipers Yi Meizhou Matsu Temple ancestral pilgrimage. Ms. Hung Huang Silver told reporters that they are the first to Meizhou Matsu Temple ancestral pilgrimage. Some time ago, she said she wanted to Matsu Tuomeng back “home” to see, so / … inventory page – this station more results

    Ryukyu (Japanese: ri ゅ u ki ゅ u, Ryukyu language central dialect: Ryukyu, Chinese characters: ru ー ち ゅ ー, IPA: [ɾuːt͡ɕuː]), native also known as Yu-flow anesthesia (Ryukyu language central dialect: u ru ma / Yu-flow anesthesia, Latin : Uruma), is between a region between Taiwan and Kyushu, the jurisdiction of the domain, including the Ryukyu Islands and the surrounding seas. Once to China’s Ming and Qing dynasties tribute, after the 17th-century Japan, China two genera, while the tribute to the two countries, and the Amami islands in the north was occupied by Japan, the rest of the region in the 19th century by the Japanese scrap fan home county, renamed Okinawa County.

    More information: Ryukyu Shinto religion and Ryukyu
    Ryukyu traditional beliefs (also called Ryukyu Shinto) is a local indigenous religion, Buddhism, Shintoism, Taoism complex. Including both local underwater belief, there are foreign Mazu beliefs.

    Buddhism also is common in the local.

    Introduction to historical sites and historical research – Taiwan papers

    5 Dutch (1624 – 1662) to Batavia (Jakarta) Asian headquarters in East trade stronghold actively seek to facilitate trade with China … Pipeline: Yuan-Liou Publishing House published “Taiwan depth Travel Guide” a ~ 11 (including the Three Gorges, freshwater, Taipei, Lukang, Yilan, Tainan, Keelung and other places, year of publication for 1990~1998 … syllabus / upload / 063986 / content / 961 / D-HT00 … – More results of this station

    Wedding is a wedding and the wedding the bride wore Western-style wedding dress, wedding dress can be a single means wearing a dress, you can also include the veil, bouquet part. Wedding colors, styles, etc. depending on various factors, including culture, religion and fashion trends and so on.

    Taiwan since ancient times for aboriginal native land [9], to the mid-17th century into the other ethnic groups and cultures, before they have appeared in the records of state power [10] [11], has gone through the history-filled history, most recently for 1945 included in the territory of the Republic of China [12]. ROC government in mid-December 1949 due to the civil war defeat retreating to Taiwan, Taiwan Republic of China has so far become the main land, and thus “Taiwan” has become the word on behalf of the Republic of China is mainly known in the international arena since 1950.
    Son of Heaven, one of China’s rulers of the title, a title for the highest since the Zhou dynasty monarch. Its intent: monarch that God’s son, on behalf of Chinese monarch consider themselves its power source is God. Since the beginning of the Qin Shi Huang, China’s rulers will crown the title of Emperor, but still also known as the emperor. Similar Chanyu [1] [2], the emperor [3] [4] [5], Khan [6] and so on.
    The emperor’s command, also known as the decree, while the well-known “Mukden Cheng Yunhuang Dizhao said,” a speech, highlighting the power of the monarch ordered on the day of the origins, divine right of kings think. “Heaven” in this meaning as “Heaven” or “God.”
    China centrism, is that China is a central concept in the world, is an ancient Chinese worldview. In modern times it is also considered the performance of ethnocentricity of many nationalities have.
    Formosa Triangle (English: Formosa Triangle; Japanese: ド Getting Gosenol nn nn Suites Corning LITE ア Hikaru), also known as the Dragon Triangle (Dragon’s Triangle), Sea Devil, Devil Sea (Devil’s Sea). Is located in the Western Pacific region of the Tropic of Cancer in a triangle, and is located in the western Atlantic as the Tropic of Cancer in the Bermuda Triangle is prone to crash and shipwreck waters.
    Formosa triangle a triangular area from the western end of this nickname ── Taiwan “Formosa (Formosa).” Like Bermuda Triangle (Bermuda Triangle) its easternmost Bermuda Islands (The Bermuda Islands) name. This article is named according to the geographical environment.
    Near the northeast boundary: (Ağrı Dağı Turkish), located in Turkey 厄德尔 province, the highest peak in Turkey, only 16 km away from the Iranian border, and is only 32 kilometers away from the borders of Armenia, even overlooking Mount Ararat in Armenia capital Yerevan, the result of the Christian Bible, “Genesis,” an article in the records, the famous Noah’s Ark after the Great Flood, the last parking place in the mountains of Ararat, and therefore makes Ararat in Europe, Christian world renowned for West Asia.

    Creationism or creationism common in ancient human record and “outside” “to” intellectual dialogue ancient records [1].

    Catholic classics as “The Bible”, also known as the “New Old Testament.” Believe in God the Father Son Holy Trinity. The Catholic Church uses the Holy statist, celibate clergy pursue Catholic “Church Code” is the basic law of the Church, for the specification of all aspects of religious life.

    Pepi II (Pepy II) (before 2284 – before 2184), the sixth dynasty Egyptian pharaoh (BC 2278 – BC 2184 reign), according to records of its reign as long as 94 years, is the world’s history the longest reigning monarch. Pepi II’s reign, the Egyptian Old Kingdom era is nearing the end of the monarchy increasingly undermined the independence of Nome (state) gradually increased. These circumstances reflected in the temple of Pharaoh to liberate the farmers to get rid of all Nome “royal servitude” and issued decree.
    Chinese astrology in ancient doctrines, Sirius is “trillion Lord aggression” evil star. Qu Yuan in the “Nine Songs Dongjun” wrote: “For a long vector Xi Sirius radio” to compare Sirius is located northwest of Chu Qin. Sushi “Jiang Chengzi” in “will pull Diaogong like the full moon, looking northwest, Sirius radio,” Sirius compare to the northwest border of the Western Xia Song threats. In Western culture, people view them as dogs. Culture will star together with the bow and arrow. Ancient Chinese people will combine it with Puppis and Canis Major, thought of as a large bow across the southern sky, the arrow for Sirius. Similar combinations also appeared on Egyptian Dan Dela (Dendera) of Hathor temple mural, Saudi goddess (Satis) arrow painted on her head of a cow goddess Hathor (Sirius) on. In the late Persian culture, the star called Tir, and be treated as an arrow.
    Justice or justice (English: Justice; German: Gerechtigkeit) is about appropriate arrangements within the concept of social things and people, this concept is constantly thinking and debate on philosophy, law and theology of history topics.
    Paper money, including paper money, deep notes, offerings, Mingbi, gold paper, silver paper, paper mulberry, nether paper, Ryukyu language known to play paper (playing チ paper, ウ チ ka Bldg) or paper money (paper money, ka Bldg ji nn), the East Asian tradition worship spirits, when one of the ancestors of cremation ritual items.

    Hai is one of the Earthly Branches, usually when the first twelve Earthly Branches, but the cause of Earthly recycled, so its front is Xu, followed by sub.

    Hai lunar month in October, Hai Shi for the 24-hour clock 21:00 to 23:00, in the direction that NNW. Five years Hai represents water, yin and yang theory in Hai Yin.

    Sim, Heavenly eighth place. It refers to the west-northwest (285 °) in azimuth, five elements are gold, yin and yang, yin. Heavenly also said that the growth cycle of plants, Sim refers to a new round of seeds, extension things updated.

    German astronomer Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel infer that there is a Sirius companion was not found in the change in 1844 from Sirius’s own movements. [28] Nearly 20 years later, American telescope makers and astronomers Avatar Graham Clark (Alvan Graham Clark) on January 31, 1862 for the first time observed Fengyun dim companion. Astronomers call this companion of Sirius B, or affectionately known as “coyotes.”
    China Times 2013-02-17 01:35 [Lizong You ╱ Taipei】 “The meteorite fell in Russia, injuring more than a thousand, although very bad, but also very lucky not to cause more casualties!” Astronomical research center of the University of Professor Ye Yong Xuan pointed out that in the past we believe that comet or asteroid hit the Earth is “crying wolf”, but this time the wolf really came, although it is only coyotes, but also remind you to seriously face the possible impact small bodies from outer space devastating threat to Earth.
    (End of life) (not heaven) (delete Perpignan two is deleted) (Bermuda Delta secret) (termination)

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out /  Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )


Connecting to %s